Hybridization from below. Nation and society in the central Andes
Latin America is considered to be a paradigm of cultural mixing/blending. ´Creole pioneers´ of independence stand for overcoming the exclusive, racist, or ´völkische´ nation concepts of Europe and North America. In a historical perspective, however, a multitude of categories distinguishing and separating ´otherness´ becomes visible, qualifications developed by Latin American elites on the basis of Iberian proto-racism. They adopted a scientific kind of racism readily, to intensify exclusion. Nevertheless, an inclusive and integrating concept of the nation, Mestizaje, became dominant in the Andine area - proclaiming the hegemony of a Mestizo ´Leitkultur´ (dominant cultural perception). Processes of hybridization, however, were advanced by the ´Indian´ population, circumventing and undermining exclusive categories ascribed to them, and increasingly overcoming spatial, social, and cultural boundaries. This shows in different fields, such as work culture, networks of social security, and new indigenous movements. Not the Creole discourse, but action-directed hybridization of the (former) Indian population shaped and molded the development of nation and society in the Andine area. The major chapters discuss: racism and the ´pre-history´ of the nation; racial segregatiohybridization (Andes), nationbuilding (Andes), indigenization, racism (Andes), dominance, subalternity, ´Creole pioneers´, proto-racism, Mestizo hegemony, hegemony, exclusion, inclusion, integration, segregation (racist)n and transgression in colonial society; the notion of race as a basis and ´brake shoe´ of nationbuilding in the Andes; work culture and work ethic (mestizaje); social security, networks and the state; indigenous movements - nationbuilding through qualification (difference).
Keywords: Mexican revolution, reform politics, unions in Mexico, rent strike in Mexico, urban social movements, women in Mexico, revolution historiography, social reform