This is the English and completely revised edition of: Die Tharu in Chitawan. Using an ethno-ecological approach, the authoress describes her theory and methodology, the ecological setting of the study and regional development, inhabitants (autochthonous groups, origin of the Tharu, their ethnography and interaction with other groups), the natural environment as seen by the Tharu, use of the natural environment and ecologically adapted technology by the Tharu (house construction and other "material culture"), and their traditional life and economy conflicting with protection of the environment. Results show that Tharu land utilization is efficient and environmentally meaningful, their reaction to floods and erosion is efficient, their traditional agriculture is well adapted but intensification of agriculture and animal husbandry has not been successful so far. Botanical knowledge is voluminous, knowledge on animals likewise, but hunting is negligible, ecologically adapted technology has been developed and the use of natural materials is meaningful. The last chapter deals with recent processes of conflict regarding traditional Tharu behavior and environment protection.
Keywords: Tharu, ethno-ecology, ecological approach, environment in Nepal