##[...] Krader has reconsidered and broadened the theory of value [and labor, from Aristotle to the present] by expanding, deepening and systematizing its anthropological and historical basis. Krader´s theories on labor and value are set within a larger naturalistic framework which he has developed elsewhere. In outline, Krader argues that we have become aware of three different orders of nature, although there may be other possible orders yet to be discovered. These orders are the material order, the human order, and the quantum order. [...] none of these orders may be reduced one to the other since each has its own character and each stands in relation to the others by means of passage about which we know some but not all elements.
[...]The problem of form and substance and of their interrelation has been central in the history of philosophical thought. Invariably, one or both have been understood as ´eternal categories´ or ´timeless essences.´ Krader not only attempts to historicize these trans-temporal and spatial mystifications, he develops their ´rational kernel´ in terms of the relations of the form and substance of labor.##
Along these lines Krader discusses the process of human reproduction; production and consumption; objective and subjective relations of labor; labor and the periodization of human history; labor and civil society (juxtaposed to other forms of societies); relations of labor and the unproductive; value, exchange value and use value; value and price, and the calculation of value - among other topics.
Keywords: labor and value, value and labor, slavery and labor, civil society, ´primitive communal groupings´, Marx, K., Aristotle, Hegel, G.W.F.