Self-sacrifice and renunciation in Western India. Anthropological studies of the sati ritual and the Shvetambara Jaina
This book consists of the following two studies:
LEHMANN, NICOLE MANON: Über den Tod hinaus: Sati, das Ideal der Kshatriya-Ehefrau [Beyond death: Sati, the ideal of the Kshatriya wife]
Lehmann traces the ideological concept of sati, the tradition of burning the widow of a Kshatriya man together with him. Taking ideal representations of ritual values of this caste level (Kshatriya), like purity, pride, sacrifice and self-sacrifice, Lehmann combines them with general Hindu symbolism like marriage connected with, or represented by, the cooking process. She then constructs the interaction of these symbols in social processes in a structuralist way to arrive at a "marriage formula" according to which the loyal Kshatriya wife "cooks herself" in the "sati transformation process" (to become a goddess) typical of the Kshatriya caste values. She explains sati as a "conclusion of essential Hindu basic patterns". Lehmann also uses a well-known recent case of sati, the Roop Kanvar case, to exemplify her argument. The appendix includes about 40 sati motifs.
LUITHLE, ANDREA: Von Asketen und Kaufleuten. Reinheit, Reichtum und soziale Organisation bei den Shvetambara-Jaina im westlichen Indien [Of ascetics and merchants. Purity, wealth, and social organization among the Shvetambara-Jaina in Western India]
Luithle discusses continuity and change in the case of the Ïvetåmbara Jaina doctrine as exemplified in Western India. She introduces Jaina ascetic and non-violence teachings as realized among Ïvetåmbaras, describes the social situation and structural and theoretical aspects of Ïvetåmbara ascetics, their internal hierarchy, charisma, otherworldliness and this-worldly asceticism, their interaction with the laity, and aspects of Jaina teachings in relation to Hinduism (sacrifice, castes, etc.). The last chapters increasingly deal with ideal types (referring to Max Weber, among others): separation vs. hierarchy (in the case of urban castes in modern cities), Jaina subcastes and their categorizations, caste identity and Jainas, functions of gift (dåna), etc.
Keywords: Jaina asceticism, Ïvetåmbara, asceticism, sati, Kshatriyas, widow burning, burning of widows, pativrata, structuralism, cooking and ritual, ritual, Hinduism, ideal types, Weber, M.