Other moons of reason. The anthropological provocation of philosophy
There is a disruption, if not a threat for European philosophy, emanating from anthropology, which philosophy cannot evade. Thus, the new discipline of anthropology must be disturbing for thinkers like W. Dilthey, E. Husserl, M. Heidegger, E. Levinas, and J. Derrida. This shock is countered by philosophy through transcendentally or ethically charged theories of otherness and of the gift. The extensive discussion and analysis of hermeneutic-phenomenological philosophers with the anthropology of Bastian, Frazer, E.B. Tylor, Boas, Malinowski, Lévy-Bruhl, Mauss, and Lévi-Strauss never becomes the cause of necessary criticism and a confrontation with the "primitive" in a culture-theoretical and philosophical discourse. Regarding the claims to truth of other cultures, philosophy up to Derrida is caught in its claim to universal validity and thus within the limits of Greek logos. But vice versa there is, for instance, no "Indianization" of European philosophies...
Därmann systematically discusses Mauss´s ’global´ gift theory and the gift discourse, Freud´s psychoanalysis (and the prehistory and history of Totem and taboo: thinkers like Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant), Dilthey´s hermeneutics, Husserl´s phenomenology, Heidegger on ’Dasein´ and being together in relation to the gift, the ’universal limits of Jewish monotheism´: the Other and the gift in Levinas, and Derrida´s deconstruction as that case in philosophy which departs the farthest from entrenched Eurocentric dealings with otherness. But, analyzing Derrida´s discussion of Lévi-Strauss´s elaboration of the Nambikwara and the role of writing in Tristes Tropiques, Därmann still concludes Derrida being ’caught´ in ’Greek´ philosophy.
Keywords: anthropology and philosophy, philosophy and anthropology, Eurocentrism, Bastian, A., Frazer, J.G., Tylor, E.B., Boas, F., Malinowski, B., Lévy-Bruhl, L., Mauss, M., Lévi-Strauss, C., Dilthey, W., Husserl, E., Heidegger, M., Levinas, E., Derrida, J., writing and otherness