Been ­to, Burger, Transmigranten? Zur Bildungsmigration von Ghanaern und ihrer Rückkehr aus der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
(Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 22)
Münster: Lit Verlag 2005
329 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-8258-8079-6

Been ­to, Burger, transmigrants? On educational migration of Ghanaians and their return from the Federal Republic of Germany

Martin has interviewed theoretically sampled´ Ghanaians in Ghana, in 1997 and 1998, using biographical and narrative methods. 21 persons were contacted of which 16 agreed to be interviewed narratively, and most of these agreed to further interviews. The ’been to´ are remigrated persons who spent some time abroad for education in order to work in the administration, as doctors, etc. after returning home. Their habitus is progressive-western, and they often wear suits and ties. This differs from another group, the ’burgers´ who have worked abroad and whose habitus is described as generous, loud and ostentatious. After theoretical chapters discussing ’return migration´ Martin goes into the history of Ghana, describes educational migration of Ghanaians, their life stories, and three generations of migrants since independence, with a stress on the third generation: their motivation, decision making, preparation for life after living abroad. She relates the experiences of university teachers, doctors, entrepreneurs, and unemployed migrants, their loss of relationships at home, housing aspects, and special experiences of women. The last chapter discusses generalized views of migrants, characteristics of South-North educational migration, and aspects of globalization.

Keywords: return migration, remigration, educational migration, been-to, Burgers, biographical method, narrative interviews, habitus of migrants