Wer sind die Dyula? Ethnizität und Bürgerkrieg in der Cte d´Ivoire
In: Föllmer, Wilhelm & Judith Schuler (eds.), 1998:

Afrika Spectrum 40.2005:221-240

##Ethnicity and civil war in Cte d´Ivoire
The roots of the civil war in Cte d´Ivoire since 2002 are complex and can be traced back to the colonial period. The conflict runs along a constructed line between ´northerners´ and ´southerners´, or between Muslims and Christians, respectively. The ethnonym ´Dioula´ is used synonymously for ´Muslim´ and ´northerner´. Moreover, many ´Dioula´ are suspected of not being ´true´ Ivorians but migrants from the neighbouring countries Mali, Burkina Faso, or Guinea. The background for these allegations is the nationalist ideology of ´ivoirité´ (ivorian-ness) that was created in 1995. On the basis of this ideology, specific populations are excluded from political participation and landownership. These politics of exclusion do not only affect recent immigrants but also groups who have resided in present-day northern Cte d´Ivoire for centuries.##

Keywords: Dioula, Dyula, ethnicity, exclusion, Ivoirité, nationalism, xenophobia, civil wars, war