Labor, slavery, and remembering. Groups of unfree origin among the Fulbe of Northern Benin
This study is based on fieldwork among the Gannunkebe (Gando) in 1994/95 and 1996/97 and is led by the question of whether the historical experience of slavery, of being unfree, is of importance even today and the question of the importance of labor in a former slave community Ð because one reaction to freedom after former serfdom might be, according to the author, that these people, freed from the yoke of labor, might care only for what is absolutely necessary now. The book includes a description of pre-colonial Borgu, early colonialism, colonialism proper (based on records and files of that time), the everyday history of Fulbe slaves in the end of the 19th century and the early colonial transition (oral material). The simultaneous existence of equality and hieararchy is described and analyzed, the annual cycle of labor (labor and free time), and the last chapter deals with the feedback between field (agriculture), individual, and community. There is an extensive appendix including glossary, literature, a questionnaire of 1903/04, various tables, and numerous photographs.