"Tranca Ruas schlachtete seine Katze, wollte aber nicht alleine essen..." Deixis, Ritualgesänge und die Glaubwürdigkeit der Geistverkörperung in der brasilianischen Umbanda
Anthropos 101.2006:529-540
Keywords: deixis, ritual songs, songs, spirit embodiment, Umbanda, embodiment of spirits

"Tranca Ruas slaughtered his cat but did not want to eat alone.." Deixis, ritual songs, and the credibility of spirit embodiment in Brazilian Umbanda
##In the rituals of Brazilian Umbanda invoked spirits, embodied by devotees in trance, speak with the visitors present in the cult house. For the audience, the embodiment creates a difference between the sound-making biological individual of the medium and the social person of the spirit who speaks. In order to understand what the speaking persona refers to when using deictical expressions such as "here," "there," "I," or "we," the interlocutor, therefore, needs contextual knowledge about the spirits. This, as the article argues, is created by ritual chants. Since the devotees draw on them when they try to understand the speaking of the spirits, ritual chants are an important source for the credibility of embodiment practices in the Umbanda.##